Now that you have completed this study session, you can assess how well you have achieved its Learning Outcomes by answering these questions.

Imagine that an outbreak of acute watery diarrhoea (AWD) has occurred in a community where you are working. You have identified that most people who are ill, and/or their families, have attended the same community centre building. A FOAM analysis has found that:

  • there is only one latrine at the centre and people say that it is always smelly and dirty
  • women particularly do not like using the latrine
  • there are no functioning handwashing facilities near the latrine
  • people do not understand the link between poor hygiene at the centre and their AWD
  • the manager of the community centre wanted to build a new latrine block and has identified materials and skilled labour to do so, but has run out of budget for improvements/repairs in the current financial year.

Complete the table below to outline a possible behaviour change strategy that would stop the outbreak. Describe the steps in bullet points rather than detail.





In one week:

In one month:

In three months:


Show answer

You probably did not include all these points, but your behaviour change strategy should look something like this:

To stop the current outbreak of AWD that originates from [insert name] Community Centre

Repair/clean existing latrine facilities to make it pleasant to use.

Repair handwashing facilities close to the latrine.

Work with centre manager to conduct behaviour change communication to make sure people understand the importance of washing hands after using the latrine.

Identify/allocate/raise funds to build additional latrine facilities, complete with sufficient handwashing stations, so that there are separate latrines for men and women with appropriate facilities – this might need to include a communication strategy for raising funds.

Build additional latrine facilities and conduct awareness campaign.

Review and evaluate effectiveness of programme.


Two people for one day to clean and paint latrine and repair handwashing station (semi-skilled).

Cleaning materials, paint etc. and any parts needed to repair handwashing station.

Funds to build additional latrine facilities, if available from existing budget, or one person for six days over four weeks to raise funds from identified sources.

Printing, paper and other sundries for communications.

One person (you?) for 16 days over three months to oversee and manage behaviour change.

Materials and labour for additional latrine facilities.


In one week: repair, clean and paint latrine, repair handwashing facilities, begin behaviour change communication, begin fundraising activity.

In one month: continue behaviour change communication, raise funds, continue behaviour change communication.

In three months: additional latrine facilities built and in use.


Activities completed according to schedule.

People understand importance of handwashing and link to health (conduct survey with community centre users).

Number of new cases of AWD declines and becomes zero by week four.

What would be the most appropriate communication approach to use for each of the following scenarios?

  1. The local administration is not allotting sufficient budget for hygiene and sanitation promotion.
  2. Mothers do not have a sound knowledge of the transmission methods of childhood diarrhoea.
  3. Open defecation is common practice in your locality.
  4. NGOs, youth and women associations, and religious institutions are not currently involved in hygiene and sanitation campaigns.

Show answer

  1. Advocacy is an appropriate approach to use to convince decision makers.
  2. Through behaviour change communication (BCC) it may be possible to increase awareness of how diarrhoea is transmitted, and to change individual behaviour in order to prevent this transmission.
  3. Social change communication is an appropriate approach to use to promote collective actions at community level to eliminate open defecation.
  4. Social mobilisation helps you bring together all stakeholders and partners (including NGOs, youth and women associations, and religious institutions) to take action on problems which affect the whole community.

What would be the most appropriate communication channel or channels to use for the campaign to prevent the AWD outbreak mentioned before from spreading?

Show answer

Many different communication channels might be appropriate, and it would be better to use more than one of these. Interpersonal communication (e.g. meetings and conversations) would be most appropriate and it would be a good idea to reinforce this using small media (e.g. posters, leaflets), social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) and mass media (e.g. radio and television) if possible.

Rearrange these steps in a WASH campaign so they are in the right order:

  • Evaluate the campaign.
  • Deliver the messages.
  • Plan the timing and schedule for your campaign messages.
  • Identify the target audience and your objectives.
  • Design the campaign and select the media you want to use.
  • Set the budget.
  • Analyse the situation.

Show answer

The correct order is:

  1. Analyse the situation.
  2. Identify the target audience and your objectives.
  3. Design the campaign and select the media you want to use.
  4. Plan the timing and schedule for your campaign messages.
  5. Set the budget.
  6. Deliver the messages.
  7. Evaluate the campaign.

Last modified: Monday, 3 October 2016, 7:37 AM