Monitoring of the quality of rivers (Figure 4.10) can be done at regular intervals by taking samples for laboratory analysis. In addition to this, regular surveys of a catchment area are useful so that potential pollutants can be identified before they contaminate a water source.
For effective protection of water sources, it is important to establish a regulatory framework for treatment of wastewater from residential communities, institutions and industries. Strict legislation should be in place to make it obligatory for wastewaters to be treated before discharge into rivers or lakes.
Control of water pollution is the responsibility of more than one organisation, since most activities involving water concern a number of different Ministries.