This Module, Urban Water Supply, was prepared by a team of Ethiopian authors with support from experts in blended learning pedagogy at The Open University UK. It was first published in February 2016. The contributors of original material are:

Kedir Seid, Federal Ministry of Health

Dr Tadesse Alemayehu, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University

Worku Tefera, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University

Araya Mengistu, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation

The Academic Editors of Urban Water Supply are Dr Suresh Nesaratnam, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Engineering in the Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, and Pam Furniss, Senior Lecturer in Environmental Systems in the Faculty of Mathematics, Computing and Technology, The Open University UK.

Additional thanks to:

Michele Paba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Rahel Kaba, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Tamene Gossa, Urban WASH Specialist, UNICEF Ethiopia

Dereje Alemu, WASH Operations Director, World Vision Ethiopia

Dr Sam Godfrey, Chief of WASH, UNICEF Ethiopia

Felipe Chaparro, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Nicholas Owuor, Team Leader Urban WASH Project, World Vision Ethiopia

Ellen Scott, OpenWASH Project Manager

Gail Vardy, OpenWASH Project Coordinator

Julie Herbert, Project Coordinator

Hannah Juma, OpenWASH Curriculum Manager

This Module should be cited as follows:

OpenWASH (2016) Urban Water Supply, The Open University UK/World Vision Ethiopia/UNICEF.

Except for third party materials and otherwise stated below, this content is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike licence ( The material acknowledged below is Proprietary and used under licence for this project, and not subject to the Creative Commons Licence. This means that this material may only be used unadapted within the OpenWASH project and not in any subsequent OER versions.

We have used some images of products for illustrative purposes only. The Open University is not endorsing or recommending such branded products but illustrating what may be available and what they achieve. There are other brands available other than those illustrated.

Grateful acknowledgement is made to the following sources for permission to reproduce the material in this unit:

Cover image: White Feather Foundation,

Figure 1.1: USAID, US Agency for International Development for Ethiopia,, photographer Nena Terrell in Flickr,; Figure 1.2:; Figure 1.3: © unknown; Figure 1.4:; Figure 1.5: © 2015; Figure 1.6:; Figure 1.7:; Figure 1.8:; Figure 1.9:; Figure 1.10: © The Open University; Figure 1.11: Kedir Seid; Figure 1.12: Pam Furniss; Figure 1.13(a): Tadesse Alemayehu; Figure 1.13(b): Richard Adam; Figure 1.13(c): WaterAid United States,

Figure 2.1: from Federal Democratic Republic Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Figure 3.4 in HEAT,,; Figure 2.2: © 2007–2015 Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Open Interactive; Figure 2.3: Liu, L., Johnson, H.L., Cousens, S., Perin, J., Scott, S., Lawn, J.E. et al., for the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group of WHO and UNICEF (2012) ‘Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality: an updated systematic analysis for 2010 with time trends since 2000’, The Lancet, vol. 379, no. 9832, pp. 2151–61; Figure 2.4:; Figure 2.5:,; Figure 2.6:; Figure 2.7: © The Open University; Figure 2.8: S.J. Upton,; Figure 2.9: Basiro Davey.

Figure 3.1: © WHO/UNICEF; Figure 3.2: adapted from Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) (2014) Ethiopia: Estimates on the Use of Water Sources and Sanitation Facilities (1980–2015), Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, WHO/UNICEF,; Figure 3.3: © The Open University; Figure 3.4: Ken Chatterton,; Figures 3.5, 3.6, 3.7(b), 3.11 and 3.13: Pam Furniss; Figure 3.7(a):; Figure 3.8: Dawit Kinfe; Figure 3.9:; Figure 3.10: redrawn from CDC,; Figure 3.12: Nancy Platt; Figure 3.14: Organization for Rehabilitation and Development of Amhara; Figure 3.15:; Figure 3.16:; Table 3.1: adapted from Kebede, Z. and Gobena, T. (2004) Water Supply I: Lecture Notes for Environmental Health Science Students, Alemaya University, prepared in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, Ethiopia Ministry of Health and Ethiopia Ministry of Education,

Figure 4.1: © The Open University; Figure 4.2: Nicholas Watson; Figure 4.3: © unknown; Figure 4.4: Nicole Cambre,; Figure 4.5: CST Covers,; Figure 4.6: © The Open University; Figure 4.7: © Magnus Franklin in Flickr,; Figure 4.8: Pam Furniss; Figure 4.9:; Figure 4.10: Tadesse Alemayehu; Table 4.1: adapted from RCA Forum, n.d., © The Open University.

Figures 5.1, 5.6(a) and 5.6(b): Pam Furniss; Figures 5.2, 5.4, 5.5 and 5.7: © The Open University; Figure 5.3:; Figure 5.8:; Table 5.1: Ministry of Water, Irrigation and Electric (MoWIE) (2015) Second Growth and Transformation National Plan for the Water Supply and Sanitation Sub-sector 2015/16–2019/20, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia,; Table 5.2: adapted from Kebede, Z. and Gobena, T. (2004) Water Supply I: Lecture Notes for Environmental Health Science Students, Alemaya University, prepared in collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, Ethiopia Ministry of Health and Ethiopia Ministry of Education,

Figures 6.1–6.4: Tadesse Alemayehu; Figure 6.5: Asian Development Bank (2013) Water Utility Asset Management: A Guide for Development Practitioners, Mandaluyong City, Philippines,; Figure 6.6: front cover of Operation and Maintenance Manual for a water pumping system, prepared by Technofab Engineering Lts, New Delhi; Figure 6.7:; Figure 6.8: © MSF; Boxes 6.1 and 6.2: adapted from

Figure 7.1: © WHO, Figure 2,; Figure 7.2:; Figure 7.3:; Figure 7.4: © Akekokssomdream/; Figure 7.5:; Figure 7.6: © Watermark Solutions Ltd,; Figure 7.7:

Figure 8.1: adapted from; Figures 8.2 and 8.4: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,; Figure 8.3(a):; Figure 8.3(b): Suresh Nesaratnam; Figure 8.5: © WHO, Example/tool 3.6,; Figure 8.6: CEM International Pty Ltd; Figure 8.7: © unknown; Figure 8.8: Kedir Seid; Table 8.1: Bartram, J., Corrales, L., Davison, A., Deere, D., Drury, D., Gordon, B. et al. (2009) Water Safety Plan Manual: Step-by-step Risk Management for Drinking-water Suppliers, Geneva, WHO,

Figures 9.1 and 9.5: Tadesse Alemayehu; Figure 9.2: WaterAid/Guilhem Alandry,; Figure 9.3: World Vision International,; Figure 9.4: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 9.6:; Tables 9.1–9.3: adapted from Ethiopian Standards Agency (ESA) (2013) Drinking Water: Specifications, Compulsory Ethiopian Standard 58, Ethiopian Standards Agency.

Figure 10.1: Kedir Seid; Figure 10.2: Hippo Water Roller Project,; Figure 10.3: in Wikimedia Commons,; Figures 10.4 and 10.5: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRCRC) (2008) Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage in Emergencies: A Field Manual for Red Cross/Red Crescent Personnel and Volunteers, Geneva, IFRCRC,; Figure 10.6: © The Open University,,; Figure 10.7: adapted from; Figure 10.8:; Figure 10.9:; Figure 10.10: Bishan Gari,; Figure 10.11:; Figure 10.12:; Figure 10.13:; Figure 10.14:; Figure 10.15: Paderno World Cuisine.

Figure 11.1:; Figure 11.2:; Figure 11.3:; Figure 11.4:; Figure 11.5:; Figure 11.6: Norwegian Embassy; Figure 11.7: © The Open University; Figure 11.8:; Figure 11.9: Jeff Vanuga, USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, placed in public domain; Table 11.1: © The Open University.

Figures 12.1, 12.2, 12.5 and 12.6: © WHO 1997,; Figure 12.3: UNICEF Ethiopia in Flickr,,; Figure 12.4: Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR) (2002) Ethiopian Guidelines: Specification for Drinking Water Quality, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa,

Figures 13.1 and 13.5: Pam Furniss; Figures 13.2 and 13.4:; Figure 13.3:; Table 13.1: Ministry of Water and Energy (MoWE) (2013) National Guideline for Urban Water Utilities Tariff Setting, Community Managed Projects Ethiopia,; Table 13.2: Worku Tefera.

Figure 14.1: © Scott Olsen/Staff/Getty Images; Figure 14.2: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute; Figure 14.3:; Figures 14.4(a) and 14.4(b): Michael Tsegaye; Figure 14.5: Pam Furniss; Figure 14.6:; Figure 14.7: Ramon Espinosa/AP; Figure 14.8:; Figure 14.9: Oxfam Equipment Catalogue,

Figure 15.1: Life in Abundance International, all rights reserved; Figure 15.2:; Figure 15.3: Sharma, S.K. and Bereket, B.W. (2008) Water Supply Systems in Selected Urban Poor Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, reviewed paper, 33rd WEDC International Conference, Accra, Ghana,; Figure 15.4: © Martchan/Shutterstock; Figure 15.5:; Figure 15.6: Basiro Davey.

Every effort has been made to contact copyright owners. If any have been inadvertently overlooked the publishers will be pleased to make the necessary arrangements at the first opportunity.

Last modified: Tuesday, 7 June 2016, 8:27 AM